Revisión teórica sobre el perfil cognitivo del perfeccionismo desadaptativo

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17162/au.v8i1.177

Palabras clave:

perfeccionismo desadaptativo, esquemas, creencias, afrontamiento, cogniciones

Resumen

El perfeccionismo puede ser entendido como la tendencia a establecer estándares de desempeño elevados y hasta irracionales, a realizar una autoevaluación estricta y rígida, y a medir el valor personal en relación a los logros y/o fracasos. El modelo cognitivo propone la descripción de perfiles cognitivos en los que se incluyen algunos componentes principales como los esquemas, las creencias, las distorsiones cognitivas, los pensamientos automáticos y el afrontamiento. En este trabajo se procuró describir el perfil cognitivo de los perfeccionistas desadaptativos para lo que se realizó una revisión no sistemática de la bibliografía buscando evidencias empíricas de los componentes de ese perfil. Se hallaron evidencias sobre la presencia de esquemas principalmente referidos al dominio de desconexión/rechazo, creencias acerca de la necesidad perfección y la auto-valoración contingente, un sesgo interpretativo de perfección y otros como la atención selectiva y el pensamiento dicotómico, diversos pensamientos automáticos de tipo perfeccionista que se suelen asociar a pensamientos negativos más generales y que perseveran en forma de rumiaciones y autocrítica; y un estilo de afrontamiento enfocado en la emoción que no logra neutralizar las situaciones estresantes. Los lectores encontrar en este artículo información accesible y actualizada útil para identificar objetivos preventivos o de tratamiento. 

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Biografía del autor/a

Sonia Chemisquy, Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas (IDIC), Universidad de la Cuenca del Plata, Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. – CONICET.

Licenciada en Psicología por la Universidad del Salvador (Argentina), Especialista en Docencia Universitaria por la Universidad Nacional de Misiones (Argentina). Doctoranda de la Facultad de Psicología de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina), donde realiza su tesis sobre el perfeccionismo desadaptativo en los niños. Becaria doctoral de CONICET, trabaja en el Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas (IDIC) de la Universidad de la Cuenca del Plata (Argentina), donde también es docente de la cátedra Psicología Evolutiva de la Niñez y Práctica Profesional Supervisada en el área Clínica.

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Publicado

2018-03-20

Cómo citar

Chemisquy, S. (2018). Revisión teórica sobre el perfil cognitivo del perfeccionismo desadaptativo. Apuntes Universitarios, 8(1), 16-40. https://doi.org/10.17162/au.v8i1.177